Global Financial Regulation
Europe led the way last year in facing down the global financial crisis and restructuring our banking system and strengthening the global financial system.
The European Union was also at the forefront in calling for a new forum for economic cooperation of G20 leaders.
And from the outset of the crisis, it was Europe which promoted the fiscal stimulus – and sought to coordinate it globally – which has been a major factor in preventing recession becoming a worldwide depression.
Now we need once again to lead the way in forging a new global consensus.
Stable, open and competitive European financial markets are essential to both European and global growth.
We recognize the importance to Europe of ensuring we have globally competitive financial services and the importance of developing world-class financial centres in Europe such as London and Paris.
But the way global financial institutions have operated raises fundamental questions that we must – and can only – address globally.
We have found that a huge and opaque global trading network involving complex products, short-termism and too often excessive rewards created risks that few people understood.
We have also learned that when crises happen it is taxpayers who have to cover the costs. It is not simply acceptable for them to foot the bill for losses in a deep downturn, while institutions’ shareholders and employees enjoy all the gains as the economy recovers.
Better regulation and supervision are the means by which the risk to the taxpayer can be reduced for the longer term.
As regards regulation, the EU has adopted a comprehensive set of new rules for the financial sector to avoid the repetition of the crisis we have been through: control over credit rating agencies, stronger capital requirement on complex products, such has securitization, strengthened deposit guarantee schemes. We have set up strict rules to make sure that compensation systems avoid excessive risk taking. We will also implement stricter capital rules for banks.
As regards supervision, we have agreed on a more efficient sytem for supervision of the financial sector within Europe to better monitor systemic risks, to ensure that EU regulation is applied consistently, to settle disagreement between national supervisor and to deal with crisis situations.
Banks must now hold sufficient capital; ensure liquidity; reward only genuine value creation and not short-term risk-taking.
This crisis has made us recognize that we are now in an economy which is no longer national but global, so financial standards must also be global. We must ensure that through proper regulation, the financial sector operates on a level playing field globally.
There is an urgent need for a new compact between global banks and the society they serve.
A compact that recognizes the risks to the taxpayer if banks fail and that recognizes the imbalance between risks and rewards in the banking system.
A compact that ensures the benefits of good economic times flow not just to bankers but to the people they serve; that makes sure that the financial sector fosters economic growth.
A compact that ensures financial institutions cannot use offshore tax havens to negate the contribution they justly owe to the citizens of the country in which they operate – and so builds on the progress already made in ending tax and regulatory havens.
Therefore, we propose a long term global compact that will encapsulate both the responsibilities of the banking system and the risk they pose to the economy as a whole.
Various proposals have been put forward and deserve examination. They include resolution funds, insurance premiums, financial transaction levies and a tax on bonuses.
Among these proposals, we agree that a one off tax in relation to bonuses should be considered a priority due to the fact that bonuses for 2009 have arisen partly because of government support for the banking system.
However, what is clear is that the action that must be taken must be at a global level. No one territory can be expected to or be able to act on their own.
And if we can find a solution, implemented consistently across the major economies, then we may find a way to ensure that taxpayers do not pay in a systemic crisis for the risks taken on by the banking sector.
We might also be able to help the funding of our millennium development goals and address climate change.
Third, to achieve global coordination, we now propose a new process of deliberating and setting macroeconomic strategy, starting with the IMF report on global contributions and leading to a major discussion at the G20 meetings chaired by South Korea next year. Through this process, we need to correct and prevent the build up of global imbalances. We need to enhance coordination at the global level so that foeign exchange volatility does not create a risk for the recovery. Each country should take its fair share of reducing global imbalances.
Stability and confidence requires us to bring financial markets into closer alignment with the values held by families and business owners:
rewarding hard work, responsibility, integrity and fairness.
People rightly want a post-crisis banking system which puts their needs first. To achieve that, nothing less than a global change is required./.