France and NATO
France’s involvement in NATO’s deterrence and collective defense mission
Collective defense, which is historically NATO’s primary objective, remains the Alliance’s main responsibility, in accordance with Article 5 of the Washington Treaty: “an armed attack against one or more of them in Europe or North America shall be considered an attack against them all” and each will take “such action as it deems necessary, including the use of armed force, to restore and maintain the security of the North Atlantic area”.
To date, Article 5 has only been used in response to the terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001, which lead to an anti-terrorism operation being activated in the Mediterranean.
NATO takes the necessary deterrence and defense measures against any threat and aggression and against any emerging security challenge which could compromise the fundamental security of one or several Allies. The strategic concept recalls that “deterrence, based on an appropriate mix of nuclear and conventional capabilities, remains a core element” of NATO’s collective defense strategy.
When confronted with the illegal invasion of Crimea in 2014 and the war in Ukraine, the Allies decided, during the Warsaw summit of 2016, to enhance their assurance measures (air policing missions for certain Allies) and deploy an enhanced Forward Presence (eFP) in Poland and the Baltic States, as well as tailored Forward Presence (tFP) around the Black Sea.
France played an active role in strengthening the Alliance’s deterrence and defense posture. The French armed forces contribute significantly and regularly to the Western allies’ measures of reassurance launched in 2014 and the forward presence measures launched in 2016. On average, nearly 4,000 personnel are deployed every year.
France contributes to reassurance measures in two ways: air policing and intelligence gathering missions (including Airborne Warning and Control System flights every month) and participation in NATO exercises (20 exercises were scheduled in the region for 2018 including the Trident Juncture exercise in which 3,000 French soldiers participated).
As regards enhanced Forward Presence (Baltic countries and Poland), France provides an armoured, mechanized combined arms battalion company team of 300 personnel including Leclerc tanks and infantry combat vehicles, integrated over eight months over alternate years in a multinational batallion in Estonia (2017, 2019) and Lithuania (2018, 2020) alongside the United Kingdom and Germany, respectively. This strong commitment is unanimously appreciated.
As regards the tailored Forward Presence (Romania and Bulgaria), France participates with vessel deployments in the Black Sea (two to three per year) and maritime surveillance missions using maritime patrol aircraft.
France, NATO and the fight against terrorism
International cooperation is a fundamental dimension in tackling terrorism. France is already working with the international organizations to which it belongs including, the EU, UN and NATO, through bilateral relations and platforms for sharing information and expertise.
In this regard, the added value of NATO is the expertise that it has developed in its military component to fight terrorism, both operationally and in building military capabilities of third States:
NATO’s main role in fighting international terrorism is to accustom our armies to working together and to make them more effective and interoperable in conducting military operations: Although NATO is not currently conducting any counter-terrorism operations, its military operations, particularly in Afghanistan, have increased the interoperability of the Allies and partners.
NATO also plays a role to further the development of counter-terrorism capabilities of the Allies, determining the overall need.
The expertise developed within NATO also helps to create ties with other competent international organizations and to increase the capabilities of partners involved in military cooperation.
During the Brussels summit of 11 and 12 July 2018, the Allies launched, at the request of the Iraqi authorities, a non-combat training missions to support the ramp up of the Iraqi security forces, in addition to the action of the Global Coalition against Daesh.
A decisive contribution to the balanced sharing of responsibilities
According to the French White Paper on Defense and National Security of April 2013, France’s defense and national security strategy is not apprehended outside the NATO framework and its commitment within the EU. The 2017 Defense and National Security Strategic Review confirmed this strategy by describing the Atlantic Alliance as a “key component of European security”.
France therefore fully takes part in a balanced sharing of responsibilities and costs:
France has dedicated 1.81% of its GDP to the NATO budget in 2018, versus 1.78% in 2017, ranking 6 out of the 29 contributors. France dedicated 24.17% of its defense budget in 2017 to major acquisitions and research and development versus 24.44% in 2016 (ranking 6 out of 29).
France has committed to increase its defense spending to 2% of its national wealth in 2025. To support this commitment, the military programming bill 2019-2025 includes an unprecedented effort of €198 billion for armed forces over its first five years. At this time, France will devote 1.91% of its GDP to defense spending. Resources for the years 2024 and 2025 will be set out during an update scheduled for 2021, taking into account the macroeconomic situation at that time.
France is one of the rare Allies to have a defense tool that has been tested in combat covering the entire range. National capability priorities will ensure that this defense tool is updated consistent with the objectives approved within NATO and the European Union.
France has contributed through its operations in Sahel and in the Levant to the overall security of the Alliance and of Europe. It has deployed 300 staff to Estonia in the enhanced Forward Presence to contribute to the deterrence mission decided in Europe. Through its operational commitments France contributes to NATO’s political and military credibility.
France also plays a driving role in mobilizing and empowering European States in the fields of security and defense. The recent European initiatives in this field (Permanent Structured Cooperation and EU European Defense Fund, European Intervention Initiative around ten European States) fully complement NATO’s action and therefore help Europeans to invest more in their defense tools and be more effective and proactive from a military perspective.
Review of the latest NATO summits
The NATO Wales Summit of 4-5 September 2014: a pivotal moment for Euro-Atlantic Security
The NATO Summit, which was held in Wales on 4 and 5 September 2014, took into account France’s priorities:
- the Summit demonstrated the Alliance’s unity in a period of international tensions where its internal cohesion had been tested. Our mutual commitments to collective defence were strengthened;
- the transatlantic partnership was reaffirmed, as was the importance of the role of Defense Europe, a crucial element of the Alliance’s security;
- adaptation of the military tool of the Allies, with the adoption of a “Readiness Action Plan” and a series of measures to help NATO adapt to the development of threats and preserve our security. Good progress was made on projects France promotes on intelligence in operations, which is essential to our armed forces;
- strong Allied commitment to upping their defense effort. While France is one of the European countries that is exemplary in this area, it encouraged better burden-sharing, which is also a requirement for the credibility of Defense Europe;
- adoption of an enhanced cyber defense policy encouraging NATO to better defend its networks and supporting the efforts made by the Allies in this area;
- progress on the reform of NATO, which will be continued by the new Secretary-General.
NATO Summit in Warsaw, on 8 and 9 July 2016
The Warsaw Summit was an opportunity to show a united, inclusive and responsible Alliance.
In Warsaw, the Allies committed to “unambiguously demonstrate, as part of our overall posture, Allies’ solidarity, determination, and ability to act by triggering an immediate Allied response to any aggression” (paragraph 40 of the Warsaw Summit Communiqué).
The Allies thus committed to establish an Enhanced Forward Presence in Baltic countries and Poland. France announced that it would play its full role, with the deployment in 2017 of a company, three to six months a year, to Estonia.
The Enhanced Forward Presence is meant for times of peace. It is an ad hoc mechanism, which is in line with NATO’s non-aggressive, predictable and defensive posture with regard to Russia. It complies with the Founding Act on Mutual Relations, Cooperation and Security between NATO and the Russian Federation signed in 1997. In addition to bolstering its defense and deterrence posture, NATO keeps the lines of communication open with Russia to avoid risks and increase transparency.
The commitment made at the Wales Summit in September 2014 on defense budgets was reaffirmed. An additional commitment was also taken, at the instigation of France, by all of the Allies, to build their national cyber defence capacities. Cyber space was recognized as an operational area, with the precautions desired by France (recognition of international law, posture of restraint).
The role of the Alliance in the South was recognized when it has added value (continued engagement in Afghanistan, support for the coalition against Daesh) and in support of the European Union in the Mediterranean region.
Finally, the summit highlighted NATO-EU relations with the signature of a joint declaration of the leaders from both organizations.
The NATO special meeting of Heads of State and Government held in Brussels on 25 May 2017
This brief meeting, held in the year following the election of the US president, provided the opportunity:
- To reaffirm a united Alliance and a solid transatlantic relationship;
- To reaffirm France’s desire to implement the commitments taken at the Wales Summit in 2014 to increase defense spending and modernize capabilities. This commitment is in keeping with ongoing initiatives to shore up European defense;
- To talk about the role NATO can play in stepping up counter-terrorism efforts, and particularly in deciding whether the Global Coalition against Daesh should join NATO. Given the military support NATO has already provided the Coalition, this decision is above all a practical one, which should allow the Alliance to participate in the Coalition’s political deliberations;
- For Belgian authorities to officially hand over the building of the new headquarters to NATO’s allied countries.
NATO Summit in Brussels, on 11 and 12 July 2018
For France, this meeting was an opportunity to demonstrate that NATO is a united and mutually supportive organization, effective in external theatres, modern in its use of resources and credible terms of collective defense.
This is shown through:
- Respecting our commitments to balancing the burden, be it regarding our defense expenditure, our capacities or our operational commitments. For the fourth consecutive year, the Europeans have increased their defense budgets. The fast and substantial progress on Defense Europe is also a major contribution to the Alliance’s security.
- Our commitment to collective defense, shown by strengthening our command structure, our efforts to enhance the mobility and readiness of forces and the decision to maintain reassurance measures. France has notably deployed over 300 personnel within NATO’s enhanced Forward Presence in the Baltic States and announced, during the Defense Ministers Meeting in February 2019, a substantial contribution to NATO’s Readiness Initiative (one brigade, three air squadrons and three ships, i.e. up to 10% of the initiative).
- Strengthening the Alliance’s role in counter-terrorism, particularly thanks to NATO’s efforts regarding partners’ defense capacity building. France therefore supported the launch – at the request of Iraqi authorities – of a NATO training mission in Iraq.
Next NATO Summit in London, on December 3 and 4, 2019